Puysegur trench formation

A schematic highlighting the formation of the Puysegur trench, New Zealand, where subduction zone initiation may be both horizontally and then vertically driven, according to a 4D evolution model of this margin.

Subduction zone initiation types

Illustration of the three types of subduction zone initiation (SZI) events, namely Newly destructive, Episodic subduction, and Polarity reversal.

Subduction zone initiation forcing

Illustration of the two endmember forcing states, namely vertically and horizontally driven, characterising subduction zone initiation (SZI).

3-D subduction mantle flow

3-D subduction dynamics and mantle flow model animation showing the time evolution of oceanic plate subduction and resulting mantle flow.

Earth interior model

Simplified model of the Earth’s interior and its global dynamics featuring a solid inner and a fluid outer core, a viscous partially molten but not fluid mantle, and characteristic surface topography.

Planetary interior

Comparison of suggested mantle convection in the Earth (mobile-lid mode) and Venus (inefficient short slab mode).

Slab-gap dynamics

Sketch of an evolution of an opening and sinking slab gap during oceanic subduction and the resulting surrounding mantle flow.

Volcanic arc creation

A conceptual view of a volcanic arc growing through the evolution of magmatism in subduction zones controlled by fluid and melt fluxes.

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