Earth’s mantle heterogeneity theories

Conceptual model sketches for proposed compositional structures of Earth's mantle, including "Marble cake", "Thermo-chemical piles", and "Mid-mantle blobs" theories.

Earth Sciences advance

Simplified 2-D depth-time diagram representing how the Earth Sciences advance through direct and indirect observations, and physical and conceptual modelling.

Subduction earthquakes (crosssection)

Vertical crosssection through the Japan subduction zone highlighting large, subduction-related earthquakes recorded over the last decades and the spatial distribution of their hypocentres.

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