Puysegur trench formation

A schematic highlighting the formation of the Puysegur trench, New Zealand, where subduction zone initiation may be both horizontally and then vertically driven, according to a 4D evolution model of this margin.

Subduction zone initiation types

Illustration of the three types of subduction zone initiation (SZI) events, namely Newly destructive, Episodic subduction, and Polarity reversal.

Subduction zone initiation forcing

Illustration of the two endmember forcing states, namely vertically and horizontally driven, characterising subduction zone initiation (SZI).

Plume-induced subduction

Temporal evolution of subduction initiation in a global, 3-D spherical numerical experiment showing the cold plates and hot mantle plumes.

SZI geologic evidence

Schematic illustration of the emplacement of subduction zone initiation (SZI)-typical rock evidence during SZI, and a typical SZI ophiolite sequence.

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