Earth’s mantle heterogeneity theories

Conceptual model sketches for proposed compositional structures of Earth's mantle, including "Marble cake", "Thermo-chemical piles", and "Mid-mantle blobs" theories.

Seismic mantle tomography maps

Surface projected global horizontal seismic S-wave velocity anomaly maps for different mantle depths revealing the two large low shear-wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs).

Earth processes

A schematic highlighting some of the most relevant Earth processes.

Dynamic planet Earth

Illustration of the Earth with parts of its mantle extracted showing plate creation, cooling, and destruction.

Mantle convection

Illustrative vertical cross-section showing the oceanic plate as part of whole-mantle convection.

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