Puysegur trench formation

A schematic highlighting the formation of the Puysegur trench, New Zealand, where subduction zone initiation may be both horizontally and then vertically driven, according to a 4D evolution model of this margin.

Subduction zone initiation types

Illustration of the three types of subduction zone initiation (SZI) events, namely Newly destructive, Episodic subduction, and Polarity reversal.

Subduction zone initiation forcing

Illustration of the two endmember forcing states, namely vertically and horizontally driven, characterising subduction zone initiation (SZI).

Paleo surface topography

Earth’s reconstructed global surface topography from the beginning of the Cenozoic era (66 Million years ago) until today.

Earth interior model

Simplified model of the Earth’s interior and its global dynamics featuring a solid inner and a fluid outer core, a viscous partially molten but not fluid mantle, and characteristic surface topography.

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