Subduction diversity on the Earth represented by variable observed parameters.
A schematic highlighting the formation of the Puysegur trench, New Zealand, where subduction zone initiation may be both horizontally and then vertically driven, according to a 4D evolution model of this margin.
Global maps displaying lateral variations in lithosphere thickness across the surface of the Earth.
Illustration of the three types of subduction zone initiation (SZI) events, namely Newly destructive, Episodic subduction, and Polarity reversal.
Illustration of the two endmember forcing states, namely vertically and horizontally driven, characterising subduction zone initiation (SZI).
Global paleogeography with zoomed in figures showing the evolution of oceanic gateways active during the Cenozoic time.
Earth’s reconstructed global surface topography from the beginning of the Cenozoic era (66 Million years ago) until today.
Animations of the Earth’s global surface topography reconstructed through the Cenozoic time (66 - 0 Ma).
Simplified model of the Earth’s interior and its global dynamics featuring a solid inner and a fluid outer core, a viscous partially molten but not fluid mantle, and characteristic surface topography.
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