Puysegur trench formation

A schematic highlighting the formation of the Puysegur trench, New Zealand, where subduction zone initiation may be both horizontally and then vertically driven, according to a 4D evolution model of this margin.

Governing equations

The governing equations of numerical modelling include conservation of mass, momentum, and energy with different types of rheology.

Subduction zone initiation types

Illustration of the three types of subduction zone initiation (SZI) events, namely Newly destructive, Episodic subduction, and Polarity reversal.

Subduction zone initiation forcing

Illustration of the two endmember forcing states, namely vertically and horizontally driven, characterising subduction zone initiation (SZI).

Geodynamic scales

Spatial and temporal scales of common geodynamic processes, which occur over a wide range of time and length scales.

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