Simplified 2-D depth-time diagram representing how the Earth Sciences advance through direct (e.g., rock record) and indirect (e.g., geophysical data) observations, and physical and conceptual modelling.

  • Creator: Fabio Crameri
  • This version: 06.10.2022
  • License: Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-SA 4.0)
  • Specific citation: This graphic by Fabio Crameri inspired by Gerya (2014) is available via the open-access repository.
  • Related reference: Gerya, T. (2014). Precambrian geodynamics: concepts and models. Gondwana Research, 25(2), 442-463.
  • Transparent background
  • Light & dark background versions
  • Vector format versions
  • Colour-vision deficiency friendly
  • Readable in black&white

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